English | Italian

"Why Iran Doesn’t..." (Theme) The lastest total: 100+. you can read with page flip.

close
show list
related videos
Iran's FM: It is 'very doubtful' to reach an agreement in Vienna. [English sub].
Rouhani: Iran hopes to reach mutually acceptable agreement.
John Kerry: US has "fervent hope" to reach deal with Iran in weeks
Iran Pres: We can reach nuclear deal
Iran Pres: We can reach nuclear deal
Iran Pres: We can reach nuclear deal
Continue »
Pop theme

Joko Widodo,Ebola vaccine,Bharatiya Janata Party,Oscar Pistorius,Total CEO,Hurricane,Peyton Manning,Zardari,Gough Whitlam,Boko Haram

Related theme

Why Iran Doesn’t Trust the International Community


iran understanding reach

2014-04-21 23:26:48

Iran has a fraught relationship with international institutions dating back at least to the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s. (Photo: Sebastià Giralt / Flickr)

Reza Nasri, an international lawyer and academic, is a Shelby Davis scholar in international law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (HEI) in Geneva. His work examines the role of the United Nations Security Council in the Iranian nuclear enrichment program, the legality of extraterritorial and unilateral sanctions, the lawfulness of attacking nuclear facilities under laws of armed conflict, cyber-attacks as a use of force, and the legal effects of threatening a party during the course of negotiations.

In this exclusive interview, he shares his thoughts and ideas about Iran’s relationship with international organizations.

Jahandad Memarian: Iran has always been cynical

    No results related

    Add now

toward international organizations’ intentions. For example, Iran has refused requests by the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur, Ahmed Shaheed, to assess that country’s human rights status first-hand. In fact, Tehran characterizes the appointment of a UN special rapporteur on Iran as a politically motivated decision. Iranian officials frequently insist that Shaheed’s reports are based on “a biased approach” that relies on unconfirmed reports and do not “merit public trust or confidence.” What explains the Iranian reaction to this issue?

Reza Nasri:Iran’s cynicism is not unfounded. There is a long history of friction and mistrust between Iran and some of the major international organizations that dates back to the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. For example, many influential people within the Iranian political establishment, as well as in the general public, vividly remember how the United Nations stayed indifferent to Saddam Hussein’s invasion and occupation of Iranian territory. Many also remember how, despite numerous pleas from Iran, all international mechanisms were deliberately put in standby mode as the Iraqi dictator dropped over 360 chemical bombs on Iranian military and civilian targets, causing over 100,000 casualties. So there is indeed a deep-rooted mistrust. And these organizations’ recent treatment of Iran over its nuclear program has only exasperated it.

Take the case of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for example. We all know that the IAEA is an important international organization, with a very sensitive monitoring task. It should in principle conduct its operations impartially, apolitically, and indiscriminately, in accordance with precise standards and in perfect compliance with its legal mandate. However, looking at its record with Iran since 2002, any fair observer would attest to how unjustly and subjectively it has acted toward the country. In fact, in many instances—mainly because of Western pressure—the IAEA’s conduct has been outright biased and unlawful.

Not only did the IAEA blatantly exceed its mandate vis-à-vis Iran during the process of inspections (namely by requesting to inspect facilities that fall outside its purview), but it went so far as to draft its reports based on dubious “information” provided by intelligence agencies and countries rival to Iran. Specifically, it used material from Israel, which is neither a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), nor—as anyone would concede—too enthusiastic about seeing the Iranian dossier resolved peacefully. Of course, the IAEA did not have the right to use these so-called “evidences” to incriminate Iran; but it did so anyway, at Iran’s great expense.

Likewise, the IAEA controversially transferred Iran’s file from the IAEA Board of Governors to the UN Security Council—an extraordinary escalatory measure that cost the Iranian economy billions of dollars. That also occurred in blatant violation of all applicable laws, as most serious experts and scholars have since demonstrated.

Or take a look at how the Security Council—an institution that must first and foremost encourage and facilitate multilateral diplomacy—set aside all its conflict-resolution mechanisms in the case of Iran to opt instead for a disproportionate and aggressive approach that solely revolved around “sanctions.” In fact, the Security Council directly jumped to its Chapter VII measures without establishing and clearly demonstrating how Iran’s nuclear program constituted a “threat to international peace and security,” as international law requires.

So in this context, it is not surprising that Iranian decision makers—and not just the hardliners, but also the moderate technocrats within the foreign policy establishment—are quite hesitant about allowing yet another institution to openly meddle in Iranian affairs. After all, they’d ask, if a complex and sophisticated “technical” organization such as the IAEA can so easily be derailed from its mandate and be used by political foes to undermine Iran’s interests, what guarantees do we have that a single individual—namely the UN Human Rights Council’s Special Rapporteur—would act independently? How could we trust that the Special Rapporteur’s real agenda is not in fact to recommend Iran’s referral back to the Security Council—this time on human rights grounds—once we’ve finally settled the nuclear file?

In my opinion, these are legitimate questions that need to be addressed. In fact, I believe that world powers must genuinely come to the realization that misusing international organizations as political tools does indeed have long-term consequences, namely by compromising  the credibility and function of the “international system” as a whole. If they really want Iran or other countries to fully partake in this system for the sake of human rights, or for other considerations, they must sincerely engage in its reform or revise their own practice.

Reza Nasri

Jahandad Memarian: Iran has behaved similarly toward international media outlets, non-governmental organizations, and independent think thanks. How do you explain Iran’s cynical attitude?

Reza Nasri:From Iran’s perspective, these organizations have also played a central role in fuelling and sustaining the nuclear “crisis”—which some commentators have rightly dubbed a “manufactured crisis.” Some of them have systematically tainted Iran’s image in the media and actively promoted a narrative that prescribes war and sanctions as the only means to deal with the country. In fact, Iranophobia has become a real industry in the United States in the past few years. Millions of dollars in public and private funds are allocated each year to boost these organizations, whose sole purpose is to single out Iran and portray it as a threat to international security.

You may find it interesting to know that South Korea—not North Korea, but South Korea!—had been found by the IAEA in 2004 to have enriched uranium to weapons-grade levels and to have pursued a secretive weapons program in flagrant violation of its international obligations. This was revealed in 2004—two years after the Iranian nuclear “crisis” began. But public opinion never heard of it. None of these organizations talked of South Korea as a rogue state. None of them systematically seized the media to portray South Korea as a nuclear threat. None of them organized panel after panel in Washington, DC to decry South Korea’s blow to the non-proliferation regime. None of these think tanks even mentioned the fact that South Korea’s breach of its nuclear obligations had by far surpassed Iran’s—a country that in fact was never found to have had a weapons program.

So, there is indeed an undeniable malicious intention vis-à-vis Iran, which is mainly fuelled by Iran’s geopolitical foes in the region that seek the country’s isolation. Against this background, it is understandable that Iran doesn’t view these institutions very positively either. In fact, their project runs directly against Iran’s aspirations to renew its ties with Western countries.

Jahandad Memarian: In Washington, some believe that the rhetoric of threat has a strong impact on Iran and can be used as an effective tool in negotiations. They believe that the hawks’ aggressive policies can create an effective good cop/bad cop dynamic that enhances Obama’s diplomacy. Do you believe that such threats can force Iran eventually to succumb to the international community’s demands?

Reza Nasri:To address your question and illustrate the effects of threats in international relations, allow me a small detour into the current Ukrainian crisis. We often hear these days from U.S. and European officials that the Crimean referendum of independence was “illegal” under international law because it took place under the coercive presence and intimidation of Russian forces. Those who invoke this argument have a valid point. In fact, their point relies on a universally recognized legal principle, which posits that “coercion nullifies true consent.” In simple terms, that means that any “agreement” that comes out of duress, threats, and intimidation has no legal value and hence is voidable. The provisions of the UN Charter, the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and customary international law—as well as the International Court of Justice—all support this position.

Now let’s come back to the Iranian situation: While Iran is sitting across the table negotiating over its nuclear program with representatives of the P5+1, the U.S. Congress and other Western officials still talk with impunity of coercing the country into more concessions with more sanctions and more “credible” threats of military force, which they unabashedly tag as an immovable “option on the table.”

So one should ask, why would the above legal principle (the prohibition of threats and duress) apply to the Crimean referendum but not to the Iran-P5+1 negotiation process? Why would the act of coercion, threat, and duress nullify the results of a popular referendum in one case but “consolidate” the outcome of a negotiation process in another?

The truth is that threats and coercion—whether military or economic—are incompatible with fundamental legal principles and the notion of good faith, especially in times of negotiations. Threatening a negotiating partner with more pressure, more sanctions, and more insecurity is not only contrary to core principles of law and morality, but it also has practical legal ramifications that could emerge in the long-term.

Indeed, proponents of this approach should bear in mind that even if Iran does cave in to the illegal threats of force and sanctions—and if it actually concedes to a nuclear agreement procured under duress by the Congress—it could very well move to nullify that agreement at later date in perfect compliance with international law. In fact, as I’ve written elsewhere, what the U.S. Congress and its radicals seem to view today as valuable “leverage” in the ongoing negotiations with Iran could very well turn into the Achilles’ heel of any future arrangement.

So, in order to reinforce the legal position of its own administration, the U.S. Congress should seriously abstain from adopting any measure that could be construed by Iran as coercion, threat, or intimidation. In other words, congressional leaders should understand that by ratcheting up the rhetoric or by adopting or threatening to adopt more sanctions against a party to the negotiations—whether in the name of non-proliferation or under the guise of fighting terrorism—they are just weakening the legal position of their own government and its allies and jeopardizing the sustainability of any eventual agreement. If their intention is genuinely to reach an understanding with Iran, then they should just let the negotiations proceed in a calm and tension-free environment.

View Original Article: fpif.org
Disclaimer statement: The point of this article or rights belongs to the authors and publishers. We take no responsibility for the content of this article and legitimacy.
Do you have any questions about this article, please contact the news source fpif.org.
Or contact us

Share

Write an article relevant this topic share on facebook share on twitter share on google plus share on oknews share on linkedin share on digg share on reddit share on newsvine share on pinterest share on netlog share on tumblr share on delicious send email print add to favorite

"Why Iran Doesn’t..." IN THE COMMUNITY!

Facebook
    Twitter

      PHOTO

        No results related
      Share one Sentence

      Manage my submission

      [{"b":"a","i":"1321843","t":"Adriana Announces its Participation in Feasibility Study for New Labrador Trough Rail Link","a":1},{"b":"a","i":"1321801","t":"United Continental Holdings, Inc. Announces Call for Optional Redemption of 6.0% Convertible Senior Notes Due 2029","a":2},{"b":"a","i":"1321806","t":"World Bank Workers Are Venting Their Frustrations In These Mysterious Flyers","a":3},{"b":"a","i":"1321807","t":"Ostberg sets record; Danbury nips Staples for FCIAC boys XC title","a":4},{"b":"c","i":"1877491","t":"Blumenthal tells FTC: Stop carmakers from misleading consumers","a":5},{"b":"a","i":"1321761","t":"Letter to Wisconsin Family Action reveals Scott Walker's opinions on abortion, gay marriage","a":6},{"b":"a","i":"1321770","t":"Morning briefing: Scott Walker says Obama visit could be a \u2018liability\u2019 for Mary Burke","a":7},{"b":"a","i":"1321782","t":"Walker & Dunlop Originates $108M Fannie Mae MHC Loan","a":8},{"b":"a","i":"1321783","t":"DailyDealy.ca Announces New Partnership with Dropcom","a":9},{"b":"a","i":"1321786","t":"Quidel Reports Third Quarter 2014 Financial Results","a":10},{"b":"b","i":"1260600","t":"S.C. Congressional Candidate: Beware of Gay 'Gremlins'","a":11},{"b":"a","i":"1321791","t":"Adriana Announces its Participation in Feasibility Study for New Labrador Trough Rail Link - Yahoo Finance UK","a":12},{"b":"b","i":"1260604","t":"The Top 6 Stoner Movies","a":13},{"b":"a","i":"1321793","t":"New Bedford Marine doesn't appear in court","a":14},{"b":"d","i":"950620","t":"Dance program helps Florida's inner city youth sashay toward college","a":15},{"b":"f","i":"1151619","t":"Virginia and Notre Dame Football to Meet Four Times Between 2015 and 2024","a":16},{"b":"d","i":"950629","t":"Jordan's King Abdullah says world faces fight against extremism","a":17},{"b":"b","i":"1260580","t":"Arsenal World Cup winner to leave club, but Cavani heading to Emirates?","a":18},{"b":"d","i":"950601","t":"Hyatt Announces Groundbreaking for Fourth Hotel in Puerto Rico","a":19},{"b":"d","i":"950603","t":"Celadon Group Announces Executive Team Changes","a":20},{"b":"d","i":"950614","t":"Six Flags Announces Eleven Percent Increase in Quarterly Dividend","a":21},{"b":"f","i":"1151510","t":"The Rude Pundit: David Brooks: \"Ebola Crisis\" Fear Is Totally Understandable Because David Brooks Understands It","a":22},{"b":"a","i":"1321721","t":"Aflac Incorporated to Release Third Quarter Results on October 28, 2014","a":23},{"b":"a","i":"1321724","t":"Single Digits, Inc. Acquires Spectra Access, Inc., Strengthens Smart Building Portfolio","a":24},{"b":"a","i":"1321727","t":"Why Dish subscribers can't see CNN today | Money - Home","a":25},{"b":"d","i":"950582","t":"New Samsung Galaxy S5 'Plus' Launched. Android World's Fastest Smartphone","a":26},{"b":"d","i":"950584","t":"One American Released From North Korea","a":27},{"b":"d","i":"950586","t":"Air Force jet, crew lands in Pyongyang to pick up freed prisoner","a":28},{"b":"d","i":"950598","t":"Procera Networks Appoints Tom Saponas as Chairman of the Board","a":29},{"b":"b","i":"1260546","t":"Vail Daily food feature: Falling for hard cider","a":30},{"b":"a","i":"1321691","t":"Southern Company elects Larry D. Thompson to board of directors - Yahoo Finance Canada","a":31},{"b":"d","i":"950580","t":"Google uses Songza to update Play Music app","a":32},{"b":"d","i":"950553","t":"DailyDealy.ca Announces New Partnership with Dropcom","a":33},{"b":"b","i":"1260556","t":"Cathay General Bancorp Announces Third Quarter 2014 Results","a":34},{"b":"b","i":"1260525","t":"Unisys Announces Third-Quarter 2014 Financial Results\r\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t- Revenue grows 11 percent; up 10 percent on a constant currency(1) basis- Net income of $47.8 million vs. net loss of $11.6 million in 3Q 2013- Diluted earnings per share of 95 cents ","a":35},{"b":"a","i":"1321703","t":"Atlantic City 'piano man' eminent domain ruling expected this week, lawyers spar in court","a":36},{"b":"a","i":"1321706","t":"Pizarro: Site of Los Gatos' first home to get historical marker","a":37},{"b":"a","i":"1321711","t":"Ray Rice NFL suspension appeal hearing set for Nov. 5-6","a":38},{"b":"b","i":"1260535","t":"Pegasystems to Announce Financial Results for the Third Quarter of 2014 - Yahoo Finance UK","a":39},{"b":"b","i":"1260536","t":"Horizon Pharma plc to Host Third Quarter 2014 Conference Call and Webcast on November 6, 2014","a":40},{"b":"b","i":"1260537","t":"Stocks Jump; ECB, Earnings in Focus - Yahoo News Malaysia","a":41},{"b":"a","i":"1321674","t":"UNC coach calls KU arena ‘the greatest home court advantage in college basketball’","a":42},{"b":"c","i":"1877435","t":"WATCH: Top Headlines from DPTV - Afrikka Hardy, Colorado unemployment, Apple Pay and more","a":43},{"b":"c","i":"1877437","t":"First major update to Windows 10 Preview, delivered through Windows Update","a":44},{"b":"f","i":"1151566","t":"Can Anyone Challenge Peyton Manning's Career Touchdown Record in Today's NFL?","a":45},{"b":"d","i":"950537","t":"Aircastle to Announce Third Quarter 2014 Earnings on November 4, 2014","a":46},{"b":"d","i":"950541","t":"Ben West: One year from today, we could have a new Canadian government. Then what?","a":47},{"b":"b","i":"1260497","t":"Featured Brokers","a":48},{"b":"a","i":"1321651","t":"Neenah Paper to Report Third Quarter Earnings on November 3, 2014","a":49},{"b":"a","i":"1321652","t":"Travelers\u2019 delight: Germany tops with 38 world heritage sites","a":50},{"b":"a","i":"1321658","t":"Recommended","a":51},{"b":"a","i":"1321659","t":"Three American Girls Planned to Join Militant Groups in Syria, Official Says","a":52},{"b":"a","i":"1321662","t":"McDonald\u2019s May Sell More Organic Foods","a":53},{"b":"d","i":"950523","t":"ACE Reports Record Quarterly Operating Income of $2.64 Per Share, up 6%; Global P&C Net Premiums up 4%; P&C Combined ...","a":54},{"b":"d","i":"950530","t":"Petrobras Rating Cut by Moody's on Worsening Leverage Ratios","a":55},{"b":"c","i":"1877404","t":"The Coca-Cola Company's Q3 Earnings: Currency Woes, Revamped Plans","a":56},{"b":"e","i":"527010","t":"Spanx Inventor Sara Blakely On Hustling Her Way To A Billion-Dollar Business","a":57},{"b":"e","i":"527016","t":"14 Fatal Mistakes You're Making At Work Today","a":58},{"b":"d","i":"950490","t":"GeoPark Announces Third Quarter 2014 Operational Update: Production Increases 66% to 21,548 boepd","a":59},{"b":"b","i":"1260458","t":"Robert Half Reports Third-Quarter Financial Results","a":60},{"b":"b","i":"1260461","t":"FMC Technologies Reports Third Quarter 2014 Diluted Earnings per Share of $0.72\r\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t- Record Subsea Technologies and Surface Technologies operating profit- Strong Subsea Technologies orders of $1.1 billion- Increased full year diluted earning","a":61},{"b":"b","i":"1260465","t":"PageUp Transforms Recruiting Process With Launch of Candidate Relationship Management App","a":62},{"b":"b","i":"1260467","t":"Clinical Ink Selected by Dell to Join Founders 50","a":63},{"b":"a","i":"1321594","t":"21,278%! 12 big winners from the '87 crash","a":64},{"b":"e","i":"526995","t":"Chicago-ing: The Curious Case of Jay Cutler","a":65},{"b":"c","i":"1877390","t":"Why Shares of The Coca-Cola Company Went Flat Today","a":66},{"b":"b","i":"1260484","t":"Merchants Bancshares, Inc. Announces Third Quarter 2014 Results","a":67},{"b":"b","i":"1260436","t":"Discover Financial Services Reports Third Quarter Net Income of $644 Million or $1.37 Per Diluted Share - Yahoo India Finance","a":68},{"b":"b","i":"1260435","t":"PSCU earns ‘Silver Award’ from Brandon Hall Group for Excellence in Learning Strategy","a":69},{"b":"b","i":"1260437","t":"Google Play Music Integrates Songza for Curated Stations","a":70},{"b":"d","i":"950488","t":"Global Mobile Crane Market 2014-2018: Key Vendors are Cargotec, Konecranes, Liebherr-International, Manitowoc, Terex ...","a":71},{"b":"a","i":"1321618","t":"Saudi Arabia, Germany enjoy cordial ties","a":72},{"b":"f","i":"1151598","t":"Green Bay brings lethal passing attack, strong pass defense to face New Orleans Saints | Black and Gold Today","a":73},{"b":"e","i":"526982","t":"Lorde's 'Mockingjay' Soundtrack Shaping Up to Be the Greatest Soundtrack Ever","a":74},{"b":"e","i":"526984","t":"Google Acquires Cloud Database Company Firebase","a":75},{"b":"a","i":"1321557","t":"Calumet Specialty Products Partners, L.P. Declares Quarterly Distribution On Limited Partner Units; Schedules Third Quarter 2014 Results Conference Call - Yahoo Finance Canada","a":76},{"b":"a","i":"1321558","t":"City National Hires J. Peter Barbara to Lead Private Banking in Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, San Gabriel Valley and South Bay - Yahoo Finance New Zealand","a":77},{"b":"a","i":"1321560","t":"LaSalle Solutions Re-Certifies Cisco Master Collaboration Specialization in the US","a":78},{"b":"a","i":"1321561","t":"Census Bureau: Kansas City vs. San Francisco: The cities competing in the 2014 World Series","a":79},{"b":"d","i":"950455","t":"Environmentalists Call for 10-Year Moratorium on Arctic Shipping Increase to Protect Endangered Beluga Whales","a":80},{"b":"d","i":"950458","t":"USA Today: Klimkin urges Russia to stop separatist elections","a":81},{"b":"d","i":"950461","t":"Ukraine asks for big EU loan during gas standoff","a":82},{"b":"b","i":"1260424","t":"Canadian operations of Great-West Lifeco earn 98B CDP score","a":83},{"b":"c","i":"1877377","t":"Putin's Propaganda Network Created Its Own Movie For MH-17 Conspiracy Theories","a":84},{"b":"d","i":"950430","t":"Three American Girls Planned to Join Militant Groups in Syria","a":85},{"b":"c","i":"1877363","t":"Three American Girls En Route to Syria Planned to Join Militant Groups, Official Says","a":86},{"b":"d","i":"950412","t":"Official Champagne Grand Tasting Returns to San Francisco","a":87},{"b":"b","i":"1260398","t":"Now You Can Wear Candy Crush-Themed Leggings","a":88},{"b":"b","i":"1260402","t":"Three American Girls Planned to Join Militant Groups in Syria","a":89},{"b":"b","i":"1260350","t":"Three American Girls Planned to Join Militant Groups in Syria","a":90},{"b":"b","i":"1260366","t":"Hyrule Warriors to Link up with Amiibo figure","a":91},{"b":"d","i":"950393","t":"'Gumball' Gets Fourth Consecutive BAFTA Children's Award Nomination","a":92},{"b":"c","i":"1877342","t":"Limbaugh: Monica’s Wrong; Clinton, Dems Are the Ones Who Bullied Her","a":93},{"b":"d","i":"950400","t":"AltaGas Ltd. Delivers COD Certificate for Its 195 MW Forrest Kerr Hydroelectric Facility","a":94},{"b":"d","i":"950410","t":"Former BNP leader Nick Griffin gives evidence at Dr Abbas Khan inquest","a":95},{"b":"b","i":"1260337","t":"U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Approves DuPont Fluorochemicals' Foam Expansion Agent with Low Global Warming Potential (GWP) - Yahoo Finance Canada","a":96},{"b":"f","i":"1151399","t":"DONATE-YOU-CAN-HELP: Mobile: Letter Christmas: Donations Send What U Want' SANTA Claus, LADY GAGA","a":97},{"b":"b","i":"1260314","t":"Isle of Man News \r\n \r\n - POSTED today at 11:07 am","a":98},{"b":"b","i":"1260320","t":"Most Active Options Update: Microsoft Corporation (MSFT)","a":99},{"b":"d","i":"950336","t":"Changing Face of America: The Diversity Index explained","a":100}]

      100

      Adriana Announces its Participation in Feasibility Study for New Labrador Trough Rail Link