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TERVERIFIKASI

2013-10-13 00:25:05

Ada yang bilang bahwa dari dinasti politik Ratu Atut sudah terbentuk tim “kesebelasan”. Dan “kesebelasan” itu terbukti telah menjadi tim yang tangguh untuk menguasai berbagai lini, baik eksekutif maupun legislatif, mulai dari tingkatan kabupaten hingga nasional. Beberapa nama anggota “kesebelasan” dinasti Ratu Atut sudah banyak disebut di Kompasiana, di antaranya di artikel ini dan ini.

Saya akan sebut dinasti Ratu Atut yang “mengabdi” di eksekutif, yaitu:

  1. Tubagus Khaerul Zaman (Adik Ratu Atut), Wakil Walikota Serang Banten 2008, Walikota Serang 2012
  2. Ratu Tatu Chasanah (Adik Ratu Atut), Wakil Bupati Serang 2010
  3. Heryani (Ibu Tiri Ratu Atut), Wakil Bupati Pandeglang 2011
  4. Airin Rachmi Diany (Adik Ipar Ratu Atut/Istri Tubagus Chaeri Wardana), Walikota Tangerang Selatan 2011

Sementara itu keluarga Ratu Atut yang lain, banyak yang “mengabdi” di legislatif, yaitu

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menjadi anggota legislatif atau pun baru menjadi calon, di daerah yang masih menjadi wilayah kekuasaan Ratu Atut.

Banyak analisa yang mengatakan bahwa kenyataan itu adalah fenomena nepotisme akut yang melingkupi dinasti politik Ratu Atut di wilayah kekuasaannya, Banten. Pertanyaannya, apakah itu semua melanggar hukum? Bagaimana kalau Ratut Atut bilang, “Saya tidak melanggar hukum kok. Toh, keluarga saya menduduki jabatan publik karena rakyat yang memilih.” Begitu kira-kira pembelaan Ratu Atut.

Kalau begitu, apakah itu termasuk nepotisme atau tidak? Lalu apakah nepotisme termasuk sebuah pelanggaran hukum? Mari kita mulai dari definisi nepotisme itu sendiri. Menurut kamus besar bahasa Indoesia, nepotisme adalah:

  • Perilaku yang memperlihatkan kesukaan yang berlebihan kepada kerabat dekat
  • Kecenderungan untuk mengutamakan (menguntungkan) sanak saudara sendiri, terutama dalam jabatan, pangkat di lingkungan pemerintah
  • Tindakan memilih kerabat atau sanak saudara sendiri untuk memegang pemerintahan

Sementara itu, Pasal 1 Ayat 5 Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 28 Tahun 1999 tentang Penyelenggara Negara Yang Bersih dan Bebas dari Korupsi, Kolusi dan Nepotisme, menegaskan bahwa “Nepotisme adalah setiap perbuatan Penyelenggara Negara secara melawan hukum yang menguntungkan kepentingan keluarganya dan atau kroninya di atas kepentingan masyarakat, bangsa dan negara”.

Nah, ternyata nepotisme adalah perbuatan yang dinyatakan melanggar hukum, yang dikenakan sanksi hukum bagi yang melanggarnya, seperti disebutkan pada pasal berikutnya pada undang-undang tersebut di atas. Lalu kenapa dinasti politik Ratu Atut melalui empat nama yang menjadi penguasa eksekutif di atas tetap dapat berlangsung sekian lama tanpa tindakan hukum?

Setelah saya pikir-pikir, mungkin Ratu Atut benar kalau dia bilang, “saya tidak melanggar hukum”. Toh mereka semua menduduki jabatan publik karena pilihan rakyat. Betul tidak? Kalau bicara normatif, memang betul. Alasannya sederhana, setiap orang berhak maju dalam pilkada meski itu istri kepala daerah yang sedang menjabat.

Hukum memang tidak mempermasalahkannya. Namun, substansi politiknya jelas merugikan. Merugikan masyarakat karena menghalang-halangi munculnya kandidat berkualitas. Merugikan kelanjutan sistem pemerintahan karena pilihan kebijakan selama berkali-kali pemilihan kepala daerah tak akan ada perubahan sebab kepala daerahnya berturut-turut keluarga itu-itu melulu. Dan yang jelas, hal itu sangat berpotensi menimbulkan tindakan atau pun kebijakan yang termasuk dalam kategori nepotisme sebagaimana ditegaskan dalam undang-undang. Buktinya jelas:

  1. Keluarga Ratu Atut menguasai 175 proyek di Banten (diduga dilakukan dengan cara-cara yang tidak wajar dan melanggar hukum)
  2. Bahkan disebutkan pula bahwa keluarga ratu Atut menguasai hulu dan hilir bisnis dan politik di Banten
  3. Dan yang terkini, adalah tertangkapnya Tubagus Chaery Wardana alias Wawan oleh Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) karena diduga terlibat suap dalam sengketa Pemilihan Umum Kepala Daerah Kabupaten Lebak.

Seharusnya Politik Dinasti Dapat Dicegah Sejak Awal

Ya, seharusnya politik dinasti dapat dicegah sejak awal, seandainya hukum lebih tegas dalam mengatur hal ini. Saya akan mengambil pendapat Joko Susanto, pengajar di Departemen Hubungan Internasional FISIP Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya. Menurutnya, ketidakberdayaan sistem hukum dan politik menghadapi gejala nepotisme ini harus dihentikan, dan diperlukan regulasi.

Untuk itu diusulkan pembentukan Undang-undang Anti Oligarki. Dasar etisnya sejenis dengan Undang-Undang Anti Monopoli dalam bidang ekonomi. Mengapa oligarki, yang berasal dari kata ”oligarch” atau kelompok elite, eksklusif? Maknanya dalam terminologi politik sudah jelas karena gejala itu memunculkan monopoli kekuasaan pada kelompok kecil orang atau dalam terminologi disebut ”oligarki”.

Praktik pemilu nepotisme ini dengan demikian bermakna anti demokrasi. Sebab, model praksis pemilu telah mengeksklusi calon kandidat hanya yang memiliki sejumlah uang tertentu yang bisa berpartisipasi. Uang itu di daerah (pada kasus pilkada) dimiliki keluarga tertentu atau keluarga incumbent (petahana). Seorang guru SD cerdas bergaji pas-pasan tetapi dicintai dan teladan masyarakat model Umar Bakri dalam lagunya Iwan Fals sudah pasti tersingkir. Ini sekadar contoh. Melalui UU Anti-oligarki, kebekuan politik ini berusaha dipecahkan.

Bukti lebih jauhnya kita lihat, selama lebih dari satu dekade setelah reformasi tidak kunjung muncul tokoh berkualitas dan memiliki visi kepemimpinan yang ideal, kecuali sekadar pengusaha atau gabungan pengusaha dan penguasa yang menggunakan uang untuk membeli suara pemilih. Ini anti demokrasi, dan kita sebagai generasi muda punya peluang memperbaikinya melalui UU Anti-oligarki.

Nah, saya ingin lebih menegaskan bahwa nama-nama seperti Tubagus Khaerul Zaman (Walikota Serang) atau Airin Rachmi Diany (Walikota Tangerang Selatan), seharusnya sudah gugur sejak awal pada pilkada yang lalu, seandainya Undang-undang Anti Oligarki itu sudah diberlakukan. Lebih tegas lagi, orang-orang yang memiliki hubungan keluarga dengan penguasa wilayah tidak berhak atau dilarang mengikuti pilkada di daerah kekuasaan penguasa wilayah tersebut. Apakah ini melanggar demokrasi? Dalam batas tertentu memang iya, tapi ini untuk mencegah kemungkaran yang lebih besar. Artinya ini menjadi koreksi terhadap sisi negatif yang mungkin terjadi pada sistem demokrasi.

Apakah Undang-undang Anti Oligarki ini juga berlaku untuk partai-partai? Menurut saya tidak, ini hanya berlaku untuk pejabat publik. Jika Partai Demokrat dipimpin oleh Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, dan sekjennya dipegang oleh Edie Baskoro Yudhoyono (anaknya), biarlah itu menjadi urusan Partai Demokrat sendiri. Jika PDI Perjuangan dipimpin oleh Megawati Soekarnoputri dan salah satu ketuanya adalah Puan Maharani (anaknya), biarlah itu menjadi urusan PDIP sendiri. Jika sebuah partai menerapkan nepotisme di dalam tubuhnya, biarlah itu menjadi urusan partai itu sendiri.

Namun jika wilayah Propinsi Banten menerapkan nepotisme di wilayahnya, apakah kita bisa mengatakan “biarlah itu menjadi urusan wilayah itu sendiri”? Tentu saja tidak! Taruhannya adalah nasib rakyatnya. Begitu pula jika itu terjadi di wilayah-wilayah lainnya. Nah, mari kita dukung  bergulirnya usulan undang-undang anti oligarki tersebut …………….

Kompasiana adalah Media Warga. Setiap berita/opini di Kompasiana menjadi tanggung jawab Kompasianer (anggota Kompasiana) yang menayangkannya.Kompasiana tidak bertanggung jawab atas validitas dan akurasi informasi yang ditulis masing-masing kompasianer.

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